The People’s Republic of China is the world’s fourth-largest country (by total area), and one of only five remaining Communist states in the world. It gained independence in 1368.
China is the world’s most populous country, with a population of over 1.37 billion. The population is unevenly distributed, presenting higher density on the east coast and less in the west of the country. China has urbanized significantly in the past few decades. The percent of the country’s population living in urban areas increased from 20% in 1990 to 55,6% in 2015.It is estimated that China’s urban population will reach one billion by 2030.
- At birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
- 0-14 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
- 15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
- 25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
- 55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
- Total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
total: 37.1 years
male: 36.2 years
female: 38.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.43% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 12.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 population(2016 est.)
Urban population: 56.1% of total population (2015)
Rate of urbanization: 3.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities – population:
- Shanghai 23.741 million
- BEIJING (capital) 20.384 million
- Chongqing 13.332 million
- Guangdong 12.458 million
- Tianjin 11.21 million
- Shenzhen 10.749 million (2015)
Health in China
According to WHO statistics, the life expectancy at birth for males is 75 years of age and for females is 78 in the country. On an average, women have 1.8 babies during their lifetime.
Health expenditures: 5.5% of GDP (2014)
Life expectancy at birth:
- Total population: 75.5 years
- Male: 73.5 years
- Female: 77.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 27 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3.4% (2010)
Physicians density: 1.49 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density: 3.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity – adult prevalence rate: 7.3% (2014)
Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis
Soil contact disease: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) (2016)
Access To Health Care
Since the mid-20th century, the Chinese government has been trying to improve healthcare in the country. This constant pursuit of reform has had adverse consequences on those living in rural areas, however, making access too expensive. To combat this undesired result, the government has initiated a rural healthcare system that is directed at both public and private establishments. The final aim is to make healthcare more affordable for individuals living in poverty. Like most public health services in the developing world, this system is plagued by insufficient funding, lack of medical professionals, and outdated equipment.
Leading Causes Of Death In China
|Rank||Cause Of Death||% Of Total Deaths, 2012|
|4||Diseases of the Respiratory System||5%|
|5||Endocrine, Nutritional & Metabolic Diseases||3.4%|
|6||Injury & Poisoning||3%|
|7||Diseases of the Digestive System||3%|
|8||Diseases of the Nervous System||1%|
|9||Diseases of the Genitourinary System||1%|
- Han Chinese 91.6%
- Zhuang 1.3%
- Other (includes Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai and other nationalities) 7.1%
Note: the Chinese Government officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups (2010 est.)
Religion in China:
The establishment of the Communist Party of China in 1949 eradicated all forms of religious activities in the country until most recently. The move towards a market economy began by succeeding leaders enabled the populace to return to traditional faith systems and welcome foreign religious beliefs as well. Today, the Communist Party of China acknowledges five religions in the country. These religious beliefs are Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam, Taoism, and Buddhism. Although, the present leaders and the Party give more credence to Confucianism and Chinese folk beliefs that include some Tibetan deities. These deities include wealth gods as well.
Regional nuances are the norm in religious affiliations in China. Christians are especially the majority in Zhejiang, Anhui, and Henan. In the 19th and 20th centuries, many Protestant missionaries proselytized residents in these provinces. Muslim Han Chinese are found mostly in Yunan and Henan provinces. Folk religion adherents are concentrated in the northeastern provinces and central plains of the country. Taoist or Confucian Philosophies have many followers in Shandong Province and the northeastern provinces. Buddhist followers are mainly in the eastern provinces of China. However, the leadership of the Communist Party of China is steadfastly an atheist organization that advises its members to remain as atheists, both in thought and practice while in office.
- Buddhist 18.2%
- Christian 5.1%
- Muslim 1.8%
- Folk religion 21.9%
- Hindu < 0.1%
- Jewish < 0.1%
- Other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist))
- Unaffiliated 52.2%
- Standard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect)
- Yue (Cantonese)
- Wu (Shanghainese)
- Minbei (Fuzhou)
- Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese)
- Hakka dialects
- Minority languages
- Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang
- Yue is official in Guangdong
- Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol
- Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur
- Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uygur,
- Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
China’s working-age population began to shrink.
In a recent note to clients, a Bank of America Merrill Lynch team led by Beijia Ma shared a chart showing that China’s working-age population — aka people 15 to 59 — has already started shrinking and is set to continue to decline.
The BAML team wrote in the note:
For China to rise to be the world’s #2 economy, the country saw its working-age population expand by 380mn people between 1980 and 2015. During this time, millions of people from rural China migrated to cities for urban manufacturing jobs. While this has pushed China to be the world’s largest manufacturing economy in 2010, it is expected to peak in 2017.
But “by 2050, the size of China’s population will decline by around 60mn, while the working-
age population will decline by 212mn or around 1/3. This is the size of the current population of Brazil, the world’s 5th most population nation,” they noted.
Note: In October 2015, the Chinese Government announced that it would change its rules to allow all couples to have two children instead of just one, as mandated in 1979; the new policy was implemented on 1 January 2016 to address China’s rapidly aging population and economic needs.
Chinese economy 2017
Currency: Yuan (CNY,RMB, Colloquially: Quai )
China’s Gross domestic product (GDP)
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a primary economic indicator. It measures the total value of all goods and services produced in an economy over a certain time period. According to the projections at hand, the Chinese economy will maintain a steady growth momentum. Even though the growth rate of China’s real GDP was expected to slow down from 2010, year-on-year GDP growth is still forecast to reach an impressive 6.5 percent by 2019. Since 2010, China has been the world’s second-largest economy, surpassing Japan.
The figures indicate that China is growing almost four times as fast as the United States in dollar terms, rapidly closing the gap in the size of the two countries’ economies.
In the financial conference “Fortune Global Forum 2013” announced that between the guidelines for further economic growth in China, is the Improving the quality of urban life, the quality of the urbanization process and the Improving the living standards of all Chinese. With two words, this proposal translates into not only costs but also a huge increase in domestic consumption, among others.
This is Very encouraging for companies which are intended to do business in the domestic market.
Per capita GDP in China
Gross domestic product is a commonly-used economic indicator for measuring the state of a country’s economy. GDP is the total market value of goods and services produced in a country within a given period of time, usually a year. Per capita GDP is defined as the GDP divided by the total number of people in the country. This indicator is generally used to compare the economic prosperity of countries with varying population sizes.
China is the leading export country worldwide
China leads the world in exports in 2016. China was followed by the United States, with exports valued at 1.45 trillion US dollars, and Germany, with exports valued at 1.34 trillion US dollars.
The value of goods exported from China grew immensely between 2002 and 2014. In 2002, China’s exports were valued at about 327 billion US dollars. China’s export value grew to 2 trillion US dollars in 2012, the first year in which China exported more than 2 trillion US dollars’ worth of goods. Year over year export growth remained above 17 percent between 2002 and 2012, except in 2009 and 2012. In 2004, export value grew by over 35 percent. In 2011, China accounted for about 10 percent of global merchandise exports and about 4 percent of global service exports. China’s greatest export product category in 2011 was machinery and transport equipment, of which they exported 902 billion US dollars’ worth. In 2012, China exported 159 billion US dollars’ worth of clothes and clothing accessories.
China is the second import country and among the fastest growing importers worldwide.
China, Hong Kong, Mexico, India, South Korea, and the United States are the fastest growing importers from the years 2010 to 2014. Since 2010, global imports from these top economic players have risen consistently at an average of no less than 22.3%.
To keep China’s economy running efficiently and to continue supporting its population of more than 1 billion people, the country has to import from its neighboring countries. Among its main partners are Japan at 11.2%, South Korea at 9.3%, the United States at 6.8%, Germany at 5.3 % and Australia at 4.6%.
Class and income equality
China’s middle-class population (if defined as those with annual income of between US$10,000 and US$60,000) had reached more than 300 million by 2012.
According to the Hurun Report, the number of US dollar billionaires in China increased from 130 in 2009 to 280 in 2013, giving China the world’s second-highest number of billionaires.
The number of millionaires is now 1.05 million, 3% up on the previous year’s figure (1.02 million). Beijing remained in first place with 184,000 millionaires, and the first nine cities in the rankings remained unchanged. However, Tianjin rose to tenth place, with 19,000 millionaires, up 11% from the previous year, the fastest rise of any city. Tianjin’s total GDP last year was almost 1.3 trillion RMB, a price-comparable increase of 13.8%, one of the fastest growth rates in the country and a clear sign of the boost given to the local economy by the Tianjin Binhai New Area.
The average age of the super-rich individuals is 40, with approximately half of them aged 45 or over. 90% are men and almost 60% have a Masters degree or higher, or an EMBA qualification.
China’s domestic retail market was worth over 20 trillion yuan (US$3.2 trillion) in 2012 and is growing at over 12% annually as of 2013, while the country’s luxury goods market has expanded immensely, with 27.5% of the global share.
- The flag of China was officially adopted on October 1, 1949.
- The red of the Chinese flag symbolizes the communist revolution, and is also the traditional color of the people.
- The large gold star represents communism, while the four smaller stars represent the social classes of the people.
- The five stars together reflect the importance placed on the number five in Chinese thought and history.
Time in China
The time in China follows a single standard time offset of UTC+08:00 (eight hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time), despite China spanning five geographical time zones. The official national standard time is called BeijingTime (Chinese: 北京时间) domestically and China Standard Time (CST) internationally. Daylight saving time has not been observed since 1991.
- Calling Code: 86
- Electricity: 220V, 50Hz
- Drive on the: Right
- Times to Travel: China is a very large country, with a broad range of weather.